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How to partition Existing Drive in Windows 11

Create partition of C Drive or free space in different drive.

Pre-Condition: Free space must be available to create new drive.

In Windows 11 Operating system Right click on Windows icon and select “Disc Management” Menu.

System will display Disk Management Window.

Disk Management

Select C Drive or select drive from where one need to create another drive. Make sure drive has free space available.

Right Click on C Drive and Select Menu Shrink Volume.

System will calculate free space and will display below pop up with some calculation ( DO NOT Press Shrink Button Immediately)

Now if here we have more than 300 GB space available but we can create 100 GB Drive. To Create 100 GB Drive need to convert 100 GB to MB. 100 GB equal to 100000 MB.

Now enter 100000 or space you needed in “Enter the amount of space to shrink in MB” and Click on Shrink Button.

Now system will display unallocated space which we created in below format. 97.66 GB Unallocated.

Right Click on UnAllocated space (which we created) and Select menu “New Simple Volume”

Click on Next button of displayed window “New simple volume Wizard”

Again Click on Next Button without changing any volume size

System will display below window by assigning drive letter for the partition. Else user can select based on his choice from dropdown list.

Click on next button and system will display below window to specify volume name

Enter Volume Label as per choice or requirement and click on next button. And then Click on Finish button to complete partition.

Now drive are ready to use

Precaution: Do not try to create partition when enough free space is not available else there are chance that you will loose your existing data.

Easy Solution for Cypress verification timed out error message

After installing cypress on windows if a user is getting the below error message to open cypress then need to perform step 1 and step 2 to resolve the cypress verification time out issue

Cypress verification timed out.

This command failed with the following output:

C:\Users\Admin\AppData\Local\Cypress\Cache\9.5.2\Cypress\Cypress.exe –smoke-test –ping=952

Command timed out after 100000 milliseconds: C:\Users\Admin\AppData\Local\Cypress\Cache\9.5.2\Cypress\Cypress.exe –smoke-test –ping=952
Timed out

Platform: win32-x64 (10.0.19044)
Cypress Version: 9.5.2

To resolve the above error run below two commands from the command line.

step 1) set CYPRESS_VERIFY_TIMEOUT=100000

step 2) npx cypress verify

✔ Verified Cypress! C:\Users\Admin\AppData\Local\Cypress\Cache\9.5.2\Cypress

After changing the Environment variable value user will be able to open or launch cypress

npx cypress open

Use of the package.json file?

Package.json is a file found in all npm packages and is normally found in the project root.

It contains various metadata about the project.

This file provides information to npm so that it can identify the project and handle its dependencies.

 It can also contain other metadata, such as a project description, the project’s version.

A Node.js project’s package.json file is usually found in the root directory.

This example of package.json file used for writing code using cypress

{“devDependencies”: {“cypress”: “9.5.2”}}

What are devDependencies in the package.json file?

Dependencies are specified with a simple hash of package name to version range. The version range is a string that has one or more space-separated descriptions. Dependencies can also be identified with a tarball or gitUrl.

devDependencies: Packages that are only needed for local development and testing.

What is tarball?

The tarball is a compressed file format. You need to unpack it before running the npm command.

What is "dependencies" in package.json file?

"dependencies": Packages required by your application in production.

Useful software testing commands on the Linux platform

Useful information which every software tester should know while testing any application on Linux or Ubuntu platform. To test any application based on the Linux platform one should be aware of the terminal and basic commands to test the application.

What is Terminal?

Terminal often known as shell, console, or prompt. We called it a Text interface for your system/computer.

How to start Terminal on Linux / Ubuntu Platform?

Navigate to any folder structure for which one has to open the terminal. Right, Click and select the option “Open in Terminal”. Another keyboard shortcut key is “Ctrl+Alt+T”. Or Click on the activities item and search for words “shell”, “terminal”, “prompt”. On search system will display Terminal Icon. By selecting that icon Terminal opens.

How to Create Folder and Files?

Users can create folders or files in any directory if he is having sufficient permission. But as a beginner, it is recommended to create this in /tmp folder.

To create a directory from the command line

mkdir testDir

To create multiple directories from the command line.

mkdir testDir1 testDir2 testDir3

mkdir command accepts a minimum of one argument. by providing only text without providing any path then the system creates that directory in the current path/directory only.

To create a directory at a specific location an argument needs to provide a path.

mkdir /tmp/testDir1

How to change the current working directory?

To change the current working directory path Linux provides the command “cd” with or without argument. This is one of the most commonly used commands.

for example, if the user wants to work in /tmp/dir1 directory and his current working directory is /root then by writing the command cd /tmp/dir1

How to get the path of a current working directory?

By using the command “pwd” the system gives information about the current working directory.

How to see a list of files and directories?

Using the “ls” command system displays all files and directories in the current path.

To view files or contents from different directories then use

ls <directory path>

ls /etc/logs/

By pressing tab, system complete the command or display a different option when the user starts typing and press the tab. Also while typing directory path and user press tab the system displays child content for selection.

How to get help from unix command? Where to read documents for Linux / ubuntu command?

If the user has to explore more about specific command then type

“man” <command name>

man ls

By reading man pages for specific commands user can understand options available for the command. Don’t get boar by reading man pages. It will help to do the job fast.

How to see what different commands are available?

type “help” and press enter. System will display list of available commands.

How to see single-line description for command?

user whatis command in below format

whatis <commandName>

This will display a limited description of the command.

How to see background process?

Use of “ps” command displays a list of running processes.

How to terminate the process?

To kill any background process use “kill” command. kill along with -9 option and PID.

First, identify the PID of the process which needs to kill using the ps command. then write

kill -9 <PID>

mention PID number.

How to start, stop, restart mysql process?

sudo service mysqld start

sudo service mysqld start

sudo service mysqld restart

How to find any file from directory?

By using find commands with different parameter user can find files from the current working directory, subdirectory or other directories (by mentioning path). for example, if the user wants to find file abc.txt in the current working directory and subdirectory then use the below command.

find . -name abc.txt

If the user wants to find the file from a specific directory then use this command

find /pathOfDirectory -name abc.txt

How to find files which contain specific text or words?

using the grep command user can find the file which contains a specific word. Using the grep command user can search text from multiple files as well. here is the use of the grep command.

grep textToFind * —–this will find textTofind in all directory

grep textToFind fileName —- this command will find textToFind in specific file.

How to take screenshots? Which software is useful to take screenshots on the ubuntu or Linux platform?

Install Flameshot on ubuntu. This is really helpful to take screenshots and highlight the necessary portion.

How to install Flameshot?

Use this command for installing Flameshot.

sudo apt install flameshot

Where to check system logs?

In /var/log directory users can find logs. using tail command user can have watched on generating logs. Using the grep command user can find any specific error in the log file which may not be observed while doing User interface Testing.

Overall there are other necessary commands also available which are useful while doing testing.

How to Analyse and Improve your time spent on the Internet

If you spend time on the internet and browse websites. Then this post will assist you in determining where you spend the majority of your productive time.

So to identify result like below follow the steps as mentioned

Summary of Total Number of Websites Visited with count

To analyze the google chrome history browser file here are the steps.

Step 1) Install DbBrowser SQLite locally.

Step 2) Open SQLite DB Browser

Step 3) Windows users can navigate to the directory

C:\Users\<UserName>\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\

MAC user can navgiate to directory

Users//Library/Application Support/Google/Chrome/Default/

Step 4) Copy History File to any other Location you want

History File location in Windows Environment under C Drive
Chrome History file location

Step 5) Now open the history file in DBBrowser SQLite. By Clicking on Open Database menu and providing History file where you copied in step 4.

DB Browser SQLite Home Screen
History File in SQLite DB Browser

Run below Query in Execute SQL Tab

  SUBSTR(SUBSTR(url, INSTR(url, '//') + 2), 0, INSTR(SUBSTR(url, INSTR(url, '//') + 2), '/')) AS domain,
  SUM(visit_count) AS total_visits
FROM urls
    WHERE url LIKE 'http%'
    GROUP BY domain
    ORDER BY total_visits DESC;
Query Result screen

By Executing the above query you will get results like how many times you are visiting a specific website.

Also we by using SQL Queries we are able to fetch the time invested on each website.

What is SQLite Browser and How to Install it on Windows

What is SQLite Browser and Where this tool useful

DB Browser for SQLite (DB4S) is an open source, high-quality visual tool for creating, designing, and editing SQLite database files.

DB4S is a database creation, search, and editing tool for users and developers. Complicated SQL commands do not need to be learned because DB4S employs a familiar spreadsheet-like interface.

What are SQLite Browser’s handy controls and wizards?

  • Make database files and compress them.
  • Tables can be created, defined, modified, and deleted.
  • Indexes can be created, defined, and deleted.
  • Records can be viewed, edited, added to, and deleted.
  • Perform a record search.
  • Text records can be imported and exported.
  • Tables can be imported and exported from/to CSV files.
  • Databases can be imported and exported from/to SQL dump files.
  • Execute SQL queries and examine the outcomes
  • Examine a log of all SQL instructions the application has issued.
  • Create simple graphs using data from a table or a query.

How to Install SQLite Browser on Windows Platform?

Open official Website

Download latest Release for Windows. Here we are downloading release 3.12.2 zip or installer file. DB.Browser.for.SQLite-3.12.2-win64.msi file we are downloading here.

Double click on Downloaded msi file DB.Browser.for.SQLite-3.12.2-win64.msi and Click on next Button.

SQLite Browser Setup First Screen

Accept the license terms by clicking on checkbox and click on next button

License Agreement SQLite Setup

Select DB Browser SQLIte or Cipher to create shortcuts or directly click on next button

Shortcut creation

Select feature or keep default selected and click on Next button

SQLLite Features

Click on Install button and wait for installation to complete

Ready to Install Screen

Once installed type db browser in search if you have created shortcuts while installing. If not then navigate to program files and select folder db browser for sql lite and click on exe DB Browser for SQLite.exe

Software Testing Skill Trends for upcoming years

Below are some predictions and analysis for a couple of years from now mainly the year 2022 for the software testing Testing industry.

The software industry is transforming in terms of technology like IoT. Development methodology like DevOps.

The given information is based on individual analysis and expertise achieved while working over a decade.

Looking at the current trend it clearly shows Software Development Engineers in Test roles will be in demand. in place of plain software tester role. The candidate who can participate in the development and test the application as well will have more preferences than traditional testers. A person who has manual testing skills along with Business domain, Black Box testing, design, and programming skills will have more preference.

Many Open source tools are capturing the huge testing market share. Tools like selenium, cypress, Katalon are widely accepted by the industry. Job trends show the open-source tools have more requirements as compared to commercial.

There is smart shifting going on from traditional testing to smart quality engineering. A person having multiple skills like Exploratory testing, Automation testing, a Business analyst with basic development knowledge will be preferred.

In the fast-changing technology world, the customer is looking for the very early to go in the market. So Those who are having the best QA practices like continuous testing with less time by providing the highest quality will have more chances to win projects. Speed and quality will be the key this year. To achieve this one should have good testing knowledge along with continuous automation testing.

As digital transformation is key to success so person or company who provides services that help customers to launch applications or products in very little or reduced time. In this digital world amount of digital data is getting produced continuously each year. For big players like Facebook, what’s app, Microsoft, apple, google data is key. So certainly big data testing will be in trend.

As the IoT industry is also growing so IoT testing will be in demand. As per Gartner

The worldwide government Internet of Things (IoT) endpoint electronics and communications market will total $21.3 billion in 2022, according to Gartner, Inc. This is a 22% increase from a forecasted total of $17.5 billion in 2021.


DevOps is providing faster and quality deployment also this is a cost-effective solution. Testing with DevOps will be more important. Companies that are having the process to deploy products using DevOps by maintaining high-quality communication across teams will be more successful.

The conclusion is software Testing is growing but the role of a software tester is getting changed in terms of skills.

Everything you need is to adapt modern skills of testing which lead to success in the year 2022.

Useful free font list from fontawesome is the next generation of the web’s favorite icon library.

for example, one can easily use CSS to get it downloaded on your website for example Facebook square

Open link

Use below once line code in HTML page to view Facebook icon.

<i class="fab fa-facebook-square"></i>
<<i class="fab fa-facebook-f"></i>

Facebook Font will look like as below.

Fontawsome site contains many free icons here is the link

This site contains many icons of different sizes. SVG files are also available.

Sizes are available for each icon.

How to print number series using different loops in C

This C Language program prints numbers from 1 to 5 using for loop, do-while loop, and while loop in easy steps.

Change the counter value in case the user wants to print n numbers.

int main(){    
int i=1,j=1,k=1;      
//print number series using do while loop
printf("%d \t",i);    

//print number series using while loop

//print number series using for loop
for(int k=1;k<=5;k++)
return 0;  


1 	2 	3 	4 	5 	
1	2	3	4	5	
1	2	3	4	5

By changing variable values one can print n number series in C language using three different loops.

How to Install Git, Microsoft Visual Studio Code, and Create GitHub Account with sample project configuration

Here will see the end-to-end installation and project configuration of the project using VS Code and GitHub.

To configure Git with Microsoft Visual Studio Code Editor one must have

  • Visual Studio Code
  • Git source control
  • Git Hub Account

Let’s see in detail how to install, and Set up Git with Microsoft Visual Studio Code Editor.

Download and Install Visual Studio Code.

The first thing to remember is to download any software from its official website only.

From the official site download, visual studio code set up, and perform the setup by clicking on the Next button.

the official site is Visual Studio Code – Code Editing. Redefined.

Download and Install Git Locally on System.

To download an open-source version control system locally it is important to download git from the official site Git – Downloading Package (

Once the Downloaded file is ready for example Git-2.34.1-64-bit.exe then double click on it.

Click on the Next button for General Public license Window

Select Destination Location folder where git has to install locally and Click on the Next button.

local git path

Click on the Next button

Click on the Next Button to select program shortcut.

Select any Default Editor option from the dropdown. (Whichever editor is available on the system) and Click on the Next button.

Click on the Next button and let git decide to use the default branch name.

Click next to adjust path environment (Keep recommended as it is)

Keep Default option selected for “Use Open bundled SSH”, “Use the open SSL Library” “Checkout Windows-style” Use MiniTty, and continue to click on the Next button unless you get the install button. Click on Install Button and wait for setup to complete.

Click on Finish Button to Setup Git Setup

Create GITHUB Account

Create a GitHub account by creating a new user at

Provide necessary information like new username (check for existence), Email Address, and Password

GitHub Will ask to verify the Account. After successful verification account will get created. The free account gives 500 MB space.

Note down your username and password.

Let’s create a simple project locally and upload it on github.

Create a Folder in any drive locally.

Here we are creating a folder in E Drive


Open Visual Studio Code and using “File -> Select Folder” Menu select the folder which you created ( for example above we are selecting E:\Github_C_Program)

Local folder in GitHub

Click on New File and Add any html, java, php, c language code in that file and name is accordinly.

Here we have created c program file and added some code in the file

Now we need to upload the above C Project to Github. To perform that we need to

  • Initialize Repository
  • Commit Code
  • Config git (First Time)
  • Add Remote (Location)
  • Push Code to Git Hub
  • First time it will ask to provide GH login password
  • If require PUsh code again.

Click on Source Control and Click on Initialize Repository.

The system will display similar files which are available in the projects folder

Click on the Commit button (Richt Check Sign) and provide the necessary comment in the message section.

Click on Yes Button so that it will ask always before committing.

The system will throw an error message as git is not configured with VS Code.

In this situation click on Open Git Log button. An editor will display log information in Output Tab like below

To config studio with git permanently you need to run the below command on the Git Command prompt.

git config –global “”

git config –global “Your Name”

Make sure to replace the correct email ID which you used while creating GitHub Account

Type Git CMD” in Search and open Git CMD Prompt. By replacing the appropriate email id and Name run the command one by one like below.

Now Go to Visual Studio Editor Again and click on commit again. If you observe code is committed successfully locally.

to Push it to Git Hub we need to create one Repository. To do this login to We have already created a username and password in earlier steps. Click on the New Repository menu as shown below.

Provide Repository Name same as project Name like below

After Clicking on Create New Repository Button GitHub will display the below message.

Copy the Above highlighted line ( Make sure it should contain your project name and username) and past it on visual studio code terminal and press enter. like below

Now Visual Studio Code is now aware of where it has to push the code. So click on the menu mentioned below to push the code

The first time it will ask you user name and password again. You can provide it if asked.

To conclude after performing every step as mentioned as shown above it will be easy to configure Visual studio code with GitHub.

If you observe code is now available in GH